道格玛95

道格玛95简介

道格玛95[[Dogme_95]]),英文为[[dogma_95]],丹麦文为[[dogme_95]]1995年成立于哥本哈根的一个丹麦电影导演小组,成员大多为毕业于丹麦国立电影学院的年轻导演,如该组织的主要发起者[[拉斯·冯·特里尔]],以及[[托马斯·温特伯格]][[克里斯丁·勒维瑞]][[索伦·克拉格·雅格布森]]。该组织的名称来自其成员于1995年3月13日共同签署的《道格玛誓言》。Dogma具有“教义”、“教条”或“信条”等含义,95标明了该组织的诞生年份。

道格玛95宣言

《Dogma 95宣言》(即《纯洁誓言》,The Vow of Chastity)全文如下:

  1. 影片须在实景现场拍摄,不可搭景或使用道具;
  2. 不可制作脱离画面的音响,不可制作脱离音响的画面(除非存在于现场的有声源音乐,否则禁止使用音乐);
  3. 须手持摄影机拍摄,影片的故事不必在摄影机在场的情况下发生,但影片的拍摄须在故事的发生地点进行(任何移动或固定镜头只允许在手提摄影里完成,不得使用脚架);
  4. 影片须是彩色的,不接受特别的照明(如果现场灯光太弱不足以曝光,这场戏就必须删除,最多只能使用摄影机附件的单一灯光);
  5. 禁止进行光学加工或使用滤镜;
  6. 影片不可包含表面行为(如谋杀、武器等元素的禁用);
  7. 禁止背离当时和现场(也即影片必须发生在当时当地);
  8. 不接受类型电影;
  9. 影片规格须为学院标准[[35毫米]]格式(注:Academy 35毫米,美国电影艺术与科学学院35毫米影片技术规格);
  10. 导演之名不可出现在职员表中。我想进一步发出誓言,我将作为一个导演而克制住个人趣味!我不再是一名艺术家.我立誓不把拍电影当做去创作一部”作品”(work),因为我认为瞬间的比整体性更重要.我的最高追求是力求把真实从我的人物和场景中迸发出来.我立誓尽一切之能事,并不惜放弃任何品味和美学考虑来达到这一点.我仅以此作为我的纯洁的誓言.

道格玛成员拍片时须遵守以上戒律,该组织甚至制订了制作道格玛影片以及申请道格玛影片证书的具体步骤。
第一部获得道格玛资格认定的影片是《那一个晚上》([[托马斯·温特伯格]]1998年),因为影片是用数码摄像机拍摄后再放大为35毫米胶片的,所以在影院放映的时候会显现出明显的粗颗粒,该影片获得了当年的[[戛纳电影节]]评审团大奖,第二部是《白痴》([[拉斯·冯·特里尔]]1998年),第三部是《敏郎悲歌》([[索伦·克拉格·雅格布森]]1999年)。至2000年,已经有15部左右的影片获得了道格玛影片证书,这些影片的导演除道格玛95小组的成员之外,还有法国、美国、意大利、瑞典、瑞士、阿根廷、韩国的导演。

起初,道格玛小组成员担任着评定道格玛影片资格的最高裁判角色,后来改由申请道格玛影片资格的导演本人签署一份文件,声明自己已经遵守了这些戒律。关于这个变化,该组织的核心人物特里尔做过如下解释:就像《圣经》的十诫一样,严格遵守道格玛戒律是不可能的,完美的道格玛影片尚未拍摄出来,而且不可能拍摄出来。但是,这个意图本身是崇高的,对于每一位导演来说,如何尽量接近这些戒律以及审视自己是否努力遵守它们,应当提到艺术自觉的高度。在数字电影迅速普及以至于人人都可以拍摄电影的时代,《道格玛誓言》可以说是对电影创作活动的某种限制,但它限制的是捕捉生活的表面现实,而倡导凸显人物的内心世界。这个誓言既反对法国新浪潮电影的个人主义,又反对美国好莱坞电影的技术主义,而是主张继承[[斯堪的纳维亚电影学派]](或曰北欧电影学派)的艺术精神。道格玛95作为电影导演组织曾活跃于20世纪90年代后半期的世界影坛,其所倡导的电影艺术观念也超越丹麦本土而为许多其他国家的电影导演所接受。尽管几个主创者已经转向了其他新的挑战,不过道格玛运动遍布世界的追随者们继续按照十条戒律来拍摄自己心目中理想的电影。

道格玛影片列表

注:dogme_95的影片很多并没有正式的名字,通常只是用”道格玛1号”这样的序号为名称.

Dogme # 1: Festen (Denmark)
Directed by [[Thomas_Vinterberg]]

Dogme # 2: Idioterne (Denmark)
Directed by [[Lars_von_Trier]]

Dogme # 3: Mifunes Sidste Sang (Denmark)
Directed by [[Søren_Kragh-Jacobsen]]

Dogme # 4: The King Is Alive (Denmark)
Directed by [[Kristian_Levring]]

Dogme # 5: Lovers (France)
Directed by [[Jean-Marc_Barr]]

Dogme # 6: Julien Donkey-Boy (USA)
Directed by [[Harmony_Korine]]

Dogme # 7: Interview (Korea)
Directed by [[Daniel_H._Byun]]

Dogme # 8: Fuckland (Argentina)
Directed by [[Jose_Luis_Marques]]

Dogme # 9: Babylon (Sweden)
Directed by [[Vladan_Zdravkovic]]

Dogme # 10: Chetzemoka’s Curse (USA)
Directed by [[Rick_Schmidt]], [[Maya_Berthoud]],

Dogme # 11: Diapason (Italy)
Directed by [[Antonio_Domenici]]

Dogme # 12: Italiensk For Begyndere (Denmark)
Directed by [[Lone_Scherfig]]

Dogme # 13: Amerikana (USA)
Directed by [[James_Merendino]]

Dogme # 14: Joy Ride (Switzerland)
Directed by [[Martin_Rengel]]

Dogme # 15: Camera (USA)
Directed by [[Rich_Martini]]

Dogme # 16: Bad Actors (USA)
Directed by [[Shaun_Monson]]

Dogme # 17: Reunion (USA)
Directed by [[Leif_Tilden]]

Dogme # 18: Et Rigtigt Menneske (Denmark)
Script and Director: [[Åke_Sandgren]]

Dogme # 19: Når Nettene Blir Lange (Norway)
Directed by [[Mona_J._Hoel]]

Dogme # 20: Strass (Belgium)
Directed by [[Vincent_Lannoo]]

Dogme # 21: En Kærlighedshistorie (Denmark)
Directed by [[Ole_Christian_Madsen]]

Dogme # 22: Era Outra Vez (Spain)
Directed by [[Juan_Pinzás]]

Dogme #23: Resin (USA)
Directed by [[Vladimir_Gyorski]]

Dogme #24: Security, Colorado (USA)
Directed by [[Andrew_Gillis]]

Dogme #25: Converging With Angels
Directed by [[Michael_Sorenson]]

Dogme #26: The Sparkle Room (USA)
Directed by [[Alex_McAulay]]

Dogme #27: Come Now (USA)

Dogme #28: Elsker Dig For Evigt (DENMARK)
Director: [[Susanne_Bier]]

Dogme #29: The Bread Basket (USA)
Director:[[_Matthew_Biancniello]]

Dogme #30: Dias de Boda (Spain)
Director: [[Juan_Pinzas]]

Dogme #31: El Desenlace (Spain)
Director: [[Juan_Pinzas]]

Dogme #32: Se til venstre, der er en Svensker (Denmark)
Director: [[Natasha_Arthy]]

Dogme #33: Residencia (Chile)
Director: [[Artemio_Espinosa_Mc]].

Dogme # 34: Forbrydelser (Denmark)
Directed by [[Annette_K._Olesen]]

Dogme #35: Cosi x Caso (Italy)
Directed by [[Cristiano_Ceriello]]

Dogme #36: Amateur Dramatics (England/Denmark)
Directed by Uncredited (Anja Laumann)

Dogme #37: Gypo (UK)
Directed by [[Jan_Dunn]]

Dogme #38: Mere Players (USA)
Directed by [[Vaun_Monroe]]

Dogme #39: el ultimo lector (méxico)
Directed by [[sergio_marroquin]]

Dogme #40: LAZY SUNDAY AFTERNOONS (ENGLAND)
Directed by [[JOE_MARTIN]]

Dogme #41: Lonely Child (Canada)
Directed by [[Pascal_Robitaille]]

Dogme #42: DarshaN (USA)
Directed by [[Travis_Pearson]]

Dogme #43: 11:09 (America)
Directed by [[Adam_Wolf]]

Dogme #44: Vince Conway (England)
Directed by [[Matthew_Pattison]]

Dogme #45: Regret Regrets (U.S.A.)
Directed by [[Taylor_Hayden]]

Dogme #46: perspective (England)
Directed by [[Luca_Salvatori]]

Dogme #47: Godinne van die Grondpad (South Africa)
Directed by [[Pieter_Lombaard]]

Dogme #48: Gilles sucks (Luxembourg)
Directed by [[Michelle]]

Dogme #49: Michelle, Gilles, Kim (Luxembourg)
Directed by [[MIchelle]]

Dogme #50: autobahne (turkey)
Directed by [[levent_türkan]]

Dogme #51: A Cool Day in August (United States of America)
Directed by [[Christopher_J._Rizzo]]

Dogme #52: Shaolin Warrior (USA)
Directed by [[Rob_Sylvester]]

Dogme #53: Chip Off the Ol` Blockbuster (USA)
Directed by [[Alex_Palmer]]

Dogme #54: Et rigtigt menneske (DK)
Directed by [[Åke_Sandgren]]

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