Exploitation film

Exploitation films 指的是一种定义宽泛的类型电影,它竭力追求感官刺激的展示,为此不惜牺牲传统概念上的艺术美感,片中往往会有无节制的性、暴力或血腥场景出现。此类影片早在电影诞生之初便已存在,但直到二十世纪七十年代才由于欧美对电影禁忌的放开而流行起来。

“exploitation”(中文含义:开发, 开采, 剥削, 自私的利用, 宣传, 广告)这个词语在演艺行业中存在已久,是表演或电影宣传使用的广告词。Exploitation films是那种依靠广告宣传而非内容质量来吸引观众的电影(例如,一些较有争议的exploitation films经常会以在某些国家被禁的事实作为广告卖点)。《电影百科全书》(The Film Encyclopedia)的作者Ephraim Katz将exploitation films定义为:对质量或艺术美感较不(或并不)关注,只企图获取快速回报的电影。片方通常会采用高压销售、促销手段来强调影片的某些情感特质。

Exploitation films对当代电影的影响可在[[Quentin_Tarantino]](他也自称是exploitation电影的爱好者)的《[[杀死比尔]]》(Kill_Bill)、《[[刑房]]》(Grindhouse),以及[[Rob_Zombie]]的《[[千尸屋]]》(House of 1000 Corpses) 、《[[千尸屋2]]》(The Devil’s Rejects)等影片中看到。 九十年代以来,此类电影也开始得到了学术界的关注,并时而被叫做”paracinema” 。

Grindhouse cinema

A grindhouse is an American term for a theater that mainly showed exploitation films, or is a term to describe the genre of films that played in such theatres (which are also known as “exploitation films”). Grind-houses were known for non-stop programs of [[B_movies]], usually consisting of a [[double_feature]] where two films were shown back to back. Many of these inner-city theatres formerly featured [[burlesque]] shows which featured “[[bump_and_grind]]” dancing, leading to the term “grind-house.” Beginning in the late 1960s and especially during the 1970s, the subject matter of exploitation films shown in these theaters often included explicit sex, violence, bizarre or perverse plot points, and other taboo content. Many grind-houses were exclusively [[pornographic]].

By the 1980s, [[home_video]] threatened to render the grind-house obsolete. By the end of the decade, these theaters had vanished from [[Los_Angeles]]’s [[Broadway (Los_Angeles)|Broadway]] and [[Hollywood_Boulevard]], [[New_York_City]]’s [[Times_Square]] and [[San_Francisco]]’s [[Market Street (San_Francisco)|Market Street]]. By the mid-1990s, these particular theaters had completely disappeared from the United States.

In [[April]] of [[2007]], a movie simply called Grindhouse is due to be released. The movie will be a double_feature, featuring two movies directed by [[Quentin_Tarantino]] and [[Robert_Rodriguez]]. The films will contain elements that were found in exploitation films in the Grindhouse theaters. The films will be bridged with trailers for films that don’t exist but fit in the grindhouse vein (sexploitation, slasher films, etc.). Grindhouse will also feature simulated film negative scratches and some clipped dialogue, to recreate the feeling that the print of the film the viewer is watching is a worn and battered copy, which was often true of the prints of many films that grindhouse theaters showed back then.

Subgenres

Exploitation films may adopt the subject matters and stylings of other film genres, particularly [[horror_film]]s and [[documentary_film]]s. The subgenres of exploitation films are categorized by which characteristics they utilize. Thematically, exploitation films can also be influenced by other so-called exploitative media, like [[pulp_magazine]]s.

Classic exploitation

A screenshot from the [[colorized]] version of [[Reefer_Madness]].

Classic Exploitation films, the earliest form of exploitation films, are films that were pitched as sensationalist exposés of some [[drug]] or [[sex]]-related [[scandal]] in the 1930s and 1940s. These were sensationalist fare at the time, and were made independently of the major [[Hollywood]] studios to avoid the restrictions of the [[Production_Code]] and providing a revenue source for independent theaters. Today, however, they are valued by aficionados for their [[nostalgic]] and [[ironic]] value. Perhaps the most famous example of these is the [[cautionary_tale]] [[Reefer_Madness]], a sensationalized and notoriously inaccurate attempt to demonize [[marijuana]] for [[Prohibition]]-era [[America]].

A particularly important type of exploitation film of this era was the “sex hygiene” exploitation film, a remnant from the [[social or mental hygiene]] movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These films featured white-coated “doctors” describing the how-tos of [[sex_education]] to the fascinated and naive audience. Often the film would be attended by another “doctor” in a white coat selling sex-hygiene booklets in the lobby after the film screening. Usually the producers would make significantly more money from the sales of the booklets than from the tickets to see the film. This type of film was also known as a “[[road_show]],” because it was shown from town to town and was promoted in advance like a circus or carnival. One of the most famous of these was [[Mom_and_Dad]], which featured actual birth footage, making it the closest thing to pornography legally available in late 1940s America.

Black exploitation

{{main|Blaxploitation}}

Black exploitation, or “[[blaxploitation]]” films, are made with black actors, ostensibly for black audiences, and about stereotypically [[African_American]] themes such as slum life, [[drugs]], and [[prostitution]]. Examples from the 1970s, when Blaxploitation was introduced, include [[Shaft]], [[Superfly]], [[Coffy]], and [[Melvin_Van_Peebles]][[Sweet_Sweetback’s_Baadasssss_Song]].

Sex exploitation

{{main|Sexploitation}}

Sex exploitation, or [[sexploitation]] films, are similar to [[softcore]] [[pornography]], in that the film serves largely as a vehicle for showing scenes involving nude or semi-nude women. While many films contain avid sex scenes, sexploitation shows these scenes more graphically than mainstream films, often overextending the sequences or showing full frontal nudity. [[Russ_Meyer]]’s body of work is probably the best known example; the movie [[Showgirls]] and the films of [[Andy_Sidaris]] are examples of recent sexploitation.

Shock exploitation

Shock exploitation films (shock films), are films containing content designed to be particularly shocking to the audience. These type of exploitation films focus content traditionally thought to be particularly taboo for presentation in film, such as extremely realistic graphic [[violence]], graphic [[rape]] depictions, simulated [[zoophilia]] and depictions of [[incest]]. Examples of shock films include [[Last_House_on_the_Left]], [[Fight_For_Your_Life]], Run and Kill, Bald Headed Betty, [[Last_House_on_Dead_End_Street]], [[Hostel]], [[Vase_de_Noces]], [[Baise-Moi]], [[Thriller: A Cruel Picture]], [[Haute_Tension]], [[I_Spit_On_Your_Grave]], [[Tromeo_and_Juliet]], and [[Assault on Precinct 13 (1976 film)|Assault on Precinct 13]]. Popular film critic [[Roger_Ebert]] has gone on record] saying that the film [[I_Spit_On_Your_Grave]] is “sick, reprehensible and contemptible”. Sometimes these films purport to be the retelling of a true story, such as the Japanese film [[Concrete]] (also known as Schoolgirl in Cement), which dealt with the [[Junko_Furuta]] murder. The sub-sub-genre of simulated “[[snuff]]” films might also belong here, such as the infamous second installment of the [[Guinea Pig]] films; 血肉の花 (Chi-niku no hana – also known as [[Flower of Flesh and Blood]), also from Japan.

Biker films

{{main|List of biker films}}

1953’s [[The Wild One]], starring Marlon Brando, was perhaps the first of this subgenre that usually focuses on motorcycle gangs with plenty of sex and violence. But most of the films were made in the mid to late 1960s and early 1970s. Other biker films includes [[The_Wild_Angels]] (1966), [[Hell’s_Angels_on_Wheels]] (1967), [[Satan’s_Sadists]] (1969) and [[C.C._and_Company]] (1970).

Cannibal_films

{{main|Cannibal_film}}

[[Cannibal_film]]s, otherwise known as the [[Cannibal_film|cannibal genre]], are a collection of graphic, gory movies made in the early 1970s on into the late 1980s, primarily by Italian moviemakers. These movies mainly focused on torture and cannibalism by Stone-Age tribes deep in the South American or Asian rain forests, usually perpetrated against Westerners that the tribes hold prisoner. Similar to [[Mondo_film]]s, the main draw of cannibal films was the promise of exotic locales and graphic gore.

Cannibal_films were very popular exploitation features in the 1970s and 80s, after [[Umberto_Lenzi]] made [[Il_Paese_del_Sesso_Selvaggio]], the first film to depict on-screen cannibalism, in 1972.In 1977, [[Ruggero_Deodato]] made [[Last_Cannibal_World]], inspiring several other film makers to follow suit in a period known as the [[cannibal_boom]]. This period would also see the most notorious film of the subgenre, Deodato’s [[Cannibal_Holocaust]] (an acknowledged influence on [[The_Blair_Witch_Project]]), in 1980. After 1981, however, the cannibal_boom had ended, and cannibal films were few and far in between. The fad concluded in 1988 with [[Mondo]] [[film_director]] Antonio Climati’s [[Natura_Contro]] (also known as [[Natura_Contro|Cannibal_Holocaust II]]).

Chambara films

{{main|Jidaigeki}}

In the 1970s, a brand of revisionist, non-traditional samurai film rose to some popularity in Japan, following the popularity of samurai [[manga]] by [[Kazuo_Koike]], on whose work many later films would be based. Films such as [[Lone_Wolf_and_Cub]], [[Lady Snowblood]] and [[Hanzo_the_Razor]] had few of the stoic, formal sensibilities of earlier jidaigeki films such as those by [[Akira_Kurosawa]] — the new chambara featured revenge-driven antihero protagonists, gratuitous nudity, steamy sex scenes, gruesome swordplay and gallons of blood, often spurted from wounds as if from a firehose. Many of these films were subsequently released internationally — sometimes in truncated form, as with [[Shogun_Assassin]], an edit that combined the first two Lone_Wolf_and_Cub films.

Famous names at this time included [[Sonny_Chiba]], [[Shintaro_Katsu]] and [[Meiko_Kaji]]. Kaji, star of the Lady Snowblood films, would further contribute to Japan’s exploitation output by starring in the Female Convict Scorpion series, that country’s answer to the [[women in prison]] genre.

The influence of these films can still be seen today, both in Japanese films like the [[Azumi]] series and, famously, [[Kill_Bill]], whose plot and style pay homage to many of the aforementioned samurai films.

Zombie films

Zombie exploitation films are films which take the concept of a normal zombie movie and change it to include more over-the-top gore and nudity. Though zombie films had existed since the early 1930s, it wasn’t until the late 1970s that the exploitation angle was worked into the zombie film. Most zombie exploitation was made by Italian film makers, following the success of [[George A. Romero’s]] [[Dawn_of_the_Dead]] in its European release under the title [[Dawn_of_the_Dead|Zombi]]. Around the same time of the release of Dawn of the Dead, [[Zombi_2]], by [[Lucio_Fulci]], was in the works. Though the film was written before Dawn_of_the_Dead‘s release in Europe, the film was renamed to Zombi_2 to share in the success of Romero’s film.

Unlike [[Dawn_of_the_Dead]], [[Zombi_2]] incorporated several elongated scenes of nudity and even more quantities of gore, thus the zombie exploitation film was born. Several imitators and spin offs followed (including a [[Zombi_3]] and [[Zombi 4]]), bringing the European zombie craze to full steam (Fulci would again contribute with his films City of the Living Dead in 1980 and The Beyond in 1981). In the exploitation viewpoint, one of the more notable of the zombie exploitation films is Marino Girolami’s 1980 film Zombi Holocaust, which combined the zombie movie with the [[Cannibal_film|cannibal movie]].

Mondo_films

{{main|Mondo_film}}

[[Mondo_film]]s, often called [[Mondo_film|shockumentaries]], are quasi-[[documentary_film]]s that focus on sensationalized topics, such as exotic customs from around the world or gruesome death footage. Similar to shock exploitation, the goal of Mondo_films is to be shocking to the audience not only because they deal with [[taboo]] subject matter (for instance, foreign sexual customs or varieties of [[violent]] behavior in various societies), but because the on-camera action is allegedly real. Though some Mondo_films contain certain amounts of educational material, none are completely educational, and most forgo any attempts at education and choose to merely shock its audience. This can be seen not only in the way the films are shot, but also by the fact that some of the most shocking footage has, in actuality, been staged.

The name “Mondo” itself comes from the first commercially successful film of this type, [[Mondo_Cane]] (in Italian, this means Dog World or World as a Dog, a title meant to imply that the world, as showcased in the film, is a brutal, nasty place). Mondo_Cane was followed by a number of sequels and spinoffs, many of which were also produced in Italy. Mondo_films continued to be major staples in exploitation film culture through the 60s and into the late 70s, when the style of the films began to change. While at first these films contained similar content of exotic and bizarre customs, in 1978, the film [[Faces_of_Death]] took the focus less from worldly rituals and more on footage of human death. Since then, most of the Mondo_films have been similar to [[Mondo_film#Death Films|death films]], which, unlike their predecessors, are mostly comprised of genuine accident, suicide, and execution footage.

Splatter films

{{main|Splatter films}}

A [[splatter_film]] or gore film is a type of [[horror_film]] that deliberately focuses on graphic portrayals of gore and violence. These films, through the use of special effects and excessive blood and guts, tend to display an overt interest in the vulnerability of the human body.

Due to their willingness to portray images society might consider shocking, splatter_films share ideological grounds with the [[transgressive_art]] movement. As a distinct genre, the splatter_film began in the 1960s with the films of [[Herschell_Gordon_Lewis]] and [[David_F._Friedman]], who became notorious for such work as [[Blood_Feast]] (1963), and [[Two_Thousand_Maniacs!]] (1964), which was re-made as [[2001_Maniacs]] in (2005) and released by [[LionsGate_Films]].

Women_in_prison_films

{{main|Women_in_prison_films}}

[[Women_in_prison_films]] are films that feature women prisoners who are tortured, humiliated, and forced into sexual situations by sadistic wardens and guards. In turn, the prisoners often hold a bloody revolt against their captors. Like [[sexploitation]], the main focus of women in prison films is high sexual content (while remaining softcore) or, like shock exploitation, torture and cruelty.

Other examples

  • [[Bruceploitation]]: Films profiting from the recent death of [[Bruce_Lee]]
  • Dyxploitation (dyke): Lesbian chic films
  • [[Giallo]] : Italian fantasy or horror, often gory or erotic
  • Hixploitation (hick): Stereotype films about the American South
  • Nazisploitation: Films such as [[Ilsa,_She-Wolf_of_the_SS]], sometimes tied with [[Women_in_prison_films]].
  • [[Nunsploitation]]: Featuring nuns in dangerous or erotic situations
  • Pornochanchada : [[Brazil]]ian naïve softcore pornographic films produced mostly in the [[1970]]s, curiously the years when the country was under a right-wing military [[dictatorship]].

Some exploitation movies cross categories freely. [[Doris_Wishman]]’s [[Let_Me_Die_A_Woman]] contains both shock documentary and sex exploitation elements.

Directors associated with exploitation film

  • [[William “One Shot” Beaudine]]
  • [[Larry_Clark]]
  • [[Roger_Corman]]
  • [[Joe_D’Amato]]
  • [[Ruggero_Deodato]]
  • [[David_E._Durston]]
  • [[Dwain_Esper]]
  • [[Michael_and_Roberta_Findlay]]
  • [[Jess Franco]]
  • [[William_Girdler]]
  • [[Jack_Hill]]
  • [[Lloyd_Kaufman]]
  • [[José_Ramón_Larraz]]
  • [[Umberto_Lenzi]]
  • [[Herschell_Gordon_Lewis]]
  • [[Radley_Metzger]]
  • [[Russ_Meyer]]

[[John_Waters]]

 

  • [[Takashi_Miike]]
  • [[Fred_Olen_Ray]]
  • [[Jean_Rollin]]
  • [[Juan_Piquer_Simón]]
  • [[Ray_Dennis_Steckler]]
  • [[Melvin_Van_Peebles]]
  • [[John_Waters (filmmaker)|John_Waters]]
  • [[Doris_Wishman]]
  • [[Ed_Wood,_Jr.]]
  • [[Jim_Wynorski]]
  • [[Rob_Zombie]]

Other important figures in exploitation film

  • [[Kroger_Babb]]
  • [[Wes_Craven]]
  • [[David_F._Friedman]]
  • [[Lucio_Fulci]]
  • [[Andy_Milligan]]
  • [[K._Gordon_Murray]]
  • [[Bob_Murawski]]
  • [[Harry_Novak]]
  • [[Sage_Stallone]]
  • [[George Weiss]]
  • [[Grindhouse_Releasing]]
  • [[Media_Blasters]]
  • [[Troma_Entertainment]]

See also

  • [[Aestheticization_of_violence]]
  • [[B_movie]]
  • [[Cult_film]]
  • [[Video_nasty]]

References

 

  • Eric Schaefer, Bold! Daring! Shocking! True!”: A History of Exploitation Films, 1919–1959 Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1999
  • Jeffrey Sconce, “‘Trashing’ the Academy: Taste, Excess, and an Emerging Politics of Cinematic Style”, Screen vol. 36 no. 4, Winter 1995, pp. 371-393.
  • Cathal Tohill and Pete Tombs, [[Immoral Tales|Immoral Tales: European Sex & Horror Movies 1956-1984]], 1994. ISBN 0-312-13519-X
  • V. Vale and Andrea Juno, RE/Search No. 10: [[Incredibly_Strange_Films]] [[RE/Search]] Publications, [[1986]]. ISBN 0-940642-09-3
  • Ephraim Katz, [[The Film Encyclopedia|The Film Encyclopedia 5e: The Most Comprehensive Encyclopedia of World Cinema in a Single Volume (Film Encyclopedia)]], 2005. ISBN 0-06-074214-3

External links

 

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电影百科编写小组

中文电影百科编写小组,2006年中文电影百科网站创建以来,一批热心于知识公益的学者、影评人和影迷,持续为网站义务编写、翻译和编辑词条,网站现有的优秀条目都来自于大家的共同协作。2013年8月,网站改版后,条目作者统一称为“中文电影百科编写小组”。网站向他们的辛勤无私的工作表示致意。

2条评论 to “Exploitation film”

  1. 2016-08-18

    夏彤

    中文怎么翻译这个exploitation film,文中没有提?直接翻译成 “ 剥削电影 ” ?

  2. 王伟

    2016-08-20

    王伟

    是的,翻译成“剥削电影”。