Jan Svankmajer

照片 :

中文名 : 杨·史云梅耶

英文名 : Jan Svankmajer

出生年 : 1934年

出生日 : 9月4日

出生地 : 捷克布拉格

国家/地区 : 捷克

职业1 : 导演

首字母 : J

杨·史云梅耶(Jan Švankmajer)是捷克超现实主义艺术家、导演、[[停格动画]]制作人。


Švankmajer was born in [[Prague]]. An early influence on his later artistic development was the puppet theatre Švankmajer was given for Christmas as a child. He studied at the College of Applied Arts in Prague and later in the Department of Puppetry at the Prague Academy of Performing Arts. In 1958 he contributed to [[Emil_Radok]]’s film [[Doktor_Faust]] and then began working for Prague’s [[Semafor_Theatre]] where he founded the [[Theatre_of_Masks]]. He then moved on to the [[Laterna_Magika]] multimedia theatre where he renewed his association with Radok. This theatrical experience is reflected in Švankmajer’s first film The Last Trick which was released in 1964. Under the influence of theoretician [[Vratislav_Effenberger]] Švankmajer moved from the [[mannerism]] of his early work to classic surrealism, first manifested in his film The Garden (1968), and joined the [[Czechoslovak_Surrealist_Group]].Jan Švankmajer: The Complete Short Films. BFI Booklet.

He was married to [[Eva_Švankmajerová]], an internationally known surrealist painter, ceramicist and writer until her death in October 2005. She collaborated on several of his movies including Faust, Otesánek and Alice. They had two children, Veronika (b. 1963) and Václav (b. 1975, an animator).

Švankmajer has gained a reputation over several decades for his distinctive use of stop-motion technique, and his ability to make surreal, nightmarish and yet somehow funny pictures. He continues to make films in Prague at the time of writing.

Švankmajer’s trademarks include very exaggerated sounds, often creating a very strange effect in all eating scenes. He often uses fast-motion sequences when people walk or interact. His movies often involve inanimate objects coming alive and being brought to life through [[stop-motion]]. Many of his films also include clay objects in stop-motion, otherwise known as [[claymation]]. Food is a favourite subject and medium.

Stop-motion features in most of his work, though recently his feature films have been including much more live action sequences rather than animation.

Many of his movies, like the short film Down to the Cellar, are made from a child’s perspective, while at the same time often having a truly disturbing and even aggressive nature. In 1972 the communist authorities banned him from making films, and many of his later films were suppressed. He was almost unknown in the West until the early 1980s.

Today he is one of the most celebrated animators in the world. His best known works are probably the feature films [[Alice]] (1988), [[Faust]] (1994), [[Conspirators_of_Pleasure]] (1996), [[Little_Otik]] (2000) and [[Lunacy]] (2005), a surreal comic horror based on two works of [[Edgar_Allan_Poe]] and the life of [[Marquis_de_Sade]]. The two stories by Poe, “[[The_System_of_Doctor_Tarr_and_Professor_Fether]]” and “[[The_Premature_Burial]]”, provide Lunacy its thematic focus, whereas the life of [[Marquis_de_Sade]] provides the film’s blasphemy. Also famous (and much imitated) is the short [[Dimensions_of_Dialogue]] (1982), selected by [[Terry_Gilliam]] as one of the ten best animated films of all time.


  • [[1964]]《最后伎俩》(”Poslední trik pana Schwarcewalldea a pana Edgara“)
  • [[1965]]《巴哈狂想曲》(”Johann Sebastian Bach: Fantasia G-moll“)
  • [[1965]]《与石嬉戏》(”Hra s kameny“)
  • [[1966]]《棺材屋/庞奇与朱迪》(”Rakvickarna“)
  • [[1966]]《其他》(”Et Cetera“)
  • [[1967]]《自然史》(”Historia Naturae, Suita“)
  • [[1968]]《庭院》(”Zahrada“)
  • [[1968]]《午后的午餐》(”Picknick mit Weissmann“)
  • [[1968]]《部屋》(”Byt“)
  • [[1968]]《屋里平静的一周》(”Tichy tyden v dome“)
  • [[1970]]《纳骨堂》(”Kostnice“)
  • [[1970]]《唐璜》(”Don Sanche“)
  • [[1971]]《荒唐童话》(”Zvahlav aneb Saticky Slameného Huberta “)
  • [[1972]]《里奥纳多日记》(”Leonarduv denik“)
  • [[1977]]《奥特兰多城堡》(”Otrantský zámek“)
  • [[1981]]《颓败之屋》(”Zánik domu Usheru“)
  • [[1982]]《对话的维度》(”Moznosti dialogu“)
  • [[1983]]《死亡的邀约》(”Kyvadlo, jáma a nadeje“)
  • [[1983]]《地下室的怪物》(”Do pivnice“)
  • [[1988]]《男性游戏》(”Muzné hry“)
  • [[1988]]《另类的爱》(”Another Kind of Love“)
  • [[1988]]《爱丽丝》(”Neco z Alenky“)
  • [[1989]]《黑暗/光明/黑暗》(”Tma/Svetlo/Tma“)
  • [[1989]]《肉体之爱》(”Meat Love“)
  • [[1989]]《花神》(”Flora“)
  • [[1989]]《生动的自画像》(”Animated Self-Portraits“)
  • [[1990]]《斯大林主义在波希米亚的消亡》(”Konec stalinismu v Cechách “)
  • [[1992]]《食物》(”Jídlo “)
  • [[1994]]《浮士德》(”Faust“)
  • [[1996]]《极乐同盟》(”[[Spiklenci_slasti]]“)
  • [[2000]]《贪吃树》(”Otesánek “)
  • [[2005]]《疯狂疗养院》(”Sílení “)