[[Jean_Cocteau]]出生在巴黎附近的小镇Maisons-Laffitte．他的家境富裕，父亲是一位律师和业余画家，却在Cocteau将要满10岁的时候自杀了．1900年Cocteau在一所小学入学，４年后被开除，于是他偷偷跑去Marseilles，用假名生活了一段时间．警察在Marseilles找到了Cocteau，将他送回叔叔家．15岁的时候，Cocteau离开了家．在17或18岁的时候，Cocteau爱上了当时已经30岁的女演员Madeleine Carlier,但她很快结束了他们的关系．1908年，也就是Cocteau 19岁的时候，他结交了Edouard de Max．De Max是当时法国戏剧界声誉极高的悲剧演员，他鼓励Cocteau写作，并且在当年４月份将Femina剧场租给Cocteau——作为这位年轻作家诗歌作品的首演场地．同年，Cocteau出版了他的第一本诗集La Lampe d’Aladin(《阿拉丁神灯》)．1909年，他认识了俄国巴蕾舞团的经理Sergey Daighilev，Daighilev鼓励Cocteau了解巴蕾艺术，希望他能＂令我（Daighilev）感到惊喜＂，在巨大的推动力下，Cocteau为芭蕾舞剧 Le Dieu Bleu创作了歌词．21岁时，因为诗集Le Prince frivole(《花花公子》)的出版，他很快在倡导波西米亚生活方式的艺术圈中成名．1914年，Cocteau去瑞士访问了Stravinsky，访问期间，他完成了自己的第一本小说Le Potomark(《波多马克》)
In his early twenties, Cocteau became associated with [[Marcel_Proust]], [[André Gide]], and [[Maurice Barrès]]. The Russian ballet-master [[Sergei_Diaghilev]] challenged Cocteau to write for the ballet – “Astonish me,” he urged. This resulted in [[Parade]] which was produced by Diaghilev, designed by Pablo Picasso, and composed by [[Erik_Satie]] in 1917. An important exponent of [[Surrealism]], he had great influence on the work of others, including the group of composer friends in [[Montparnasse]] known as [[Les_Six]]. The word Surrealism was coined, in fact, by [[Guillaume_Apollinaire]] to describe Parade, a work which was initially not well-received. “If it had not been for Apollinaire in uniform,” wrote Cocteau, “with his skull shaved, the scar on his temple and the bandage around his head, women would have gouged our eyes out with hairpins.”
Friendship with Raymond_Radiguet
In [] he met the 15-year-old poet [[Raymond_Radiguet]]. The two collaborated extensively, socialized, and undertook many journeys and vacations together. Cocteau also got the youth exempted from military service. In admiration of Radiguet’s great literary talent, Cocteau promoted his friend’s works in his artistic circle and also arranged for the publication by Grasset of [[Le_Diable_au_corps]] (a largely autobiographical story of an adulterous relationship between a married woman and a younger man), exerting his influence to garner the “Nouveau Monde” literary prize for the novel.
There is disagreement over Cocteau’s reaction to Radiguet’s sudden death in 1923, with some claiming that it left him stunned, despondent and prey to [[opium]] addiction. Opponents of that interpretation point out that he did not attend the funeral (he generally did not attend funerals) and immediately left Paris with Diaghilev for a performance of [[Les_Noces]] by the [[Ballets_Russes]] at [[Monte_Carlo]]. Cocteau himself much later characterised his reaction as one of “stupor and disgust”. His opium addiction at the time,Cocteau said, was only coincidental, due to a chance meeting with Louis Laloy, the administrator of the Monte_Carlo Opera. Cocteau’s opium use and his efforts to stop profoundly changed his literary style. His most notable book, [[Les Enfants Terribles], was written in a week during a strenuous opium weaning.
It has been suggested that Cocteau’s friendship with Radiguet was also an intense and often stormy love affair, but there is no documented evidence that this is true. See [[Historical pederastic relationships#20th and 21st centuries|Historical pederastic relationships]].
In the [[1930s]], Cocteau had an unlikely affair with Princess [[Nathalie_Paley]], the beautiful daughter of a [[Romanov]] grand duke and herself a fashion-plate, sometimes actress, model, and former wife of couturier [[Lucien_Lelong]]. She became [[pregnant]]. To Cocteau’s distress and Paley’s life-long regret, the fetus was [[aborted]]. Cocteau’s longest-lasting relationships were with the French actors [[Jean_Marais]], whom he cast in [[Beauty and the Beast (1946 film)|Beauty and the Beast]], and Edouard Dermit, whom Cocteau formally adopted. Cocteau is also rumored to have carried on a relationship with [[Panama_Al_Brown]], a boxer he managed during the 1930’s http://www.outsports.com/history/gayboxer.htm.|1, but no documented evidence of this relationship exists.
In [], Le Bel Indifférent, Cocteau’s play written for and starring [[Édith_Piaf]], was enormously successful. He also worked with [[Picasso]] on several projects and was friends with most of the European art community. He struggled with an opium addiction for most of his adult life and was openly [[gay]], though he had a few brief and complicated affairs with women. He published a considerable amount of work criticising [[homophobia]].
Cocteau’s films, the bulk of which he both wrote and directed, were particularly important in introducing Surrealism into French cinema and influenced to a certain degree the upcoming French New Wave genre.
Cocteau is best known for [[Les_enfants_terribles]], the [] play [[Les_parents_terribles]], and the [] film, [[Beauty and the Beast (1946 film)|Beauty and the Beast]].
Cocteau died of a [[heart attack]] at his chateau in Milly-la-Foret, France, on [[October_11]], [] at the age of 74, only hours after hearing of the death of his friend, the French singer [[Édith_Piaf]]. He is buried in the garden of his home in [[Milly_La_Foret]], [[Essonne]], [[France]]. The epitaph reads I stay among you
Awards and recognitions
In [] Cocteau was made a member of the [[Académie_française]] and [[The Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium|The Royal Academy of Belgium]].
During his life Cocteau was commander of the [[Legion of Honor]], Member of the Mallarmé Academy, German Academy (Berlin), American Academy, Mark Twain (U.S.A) Academy, Honorary President of the [[Cannes_film_festival]], Honorary President of the France-Hungary Association and President of the jazz Academy and of the Academy of the Disc.
- 1930年 《诗人之血》(Le sang d’un poète)
- 1943年 《永恒的回归》（L’éternel retour）
- 1946年 《美女与野兽》(La belle et la bête)
- 1947年 《双头鹰之死》(L’aigle à deux têtes )
- 1948年 《可怕的父母》(Les_parents_terribles)
- 1949年 《俄耳甫斯》(Orphée)
- 1952年 《圣多－索斯比别墅》(La villa Santo-Sospir )
- 1959年 《俄耳甫斯的遗言》(Le testament d’Orphée)
- 1909年 《阿拉丁神灯》（La Lampe d’Aladin)
- 1910年 《花花公子》（Le Prince frivole)
- 1912年 《索福克勒斯之舞》(La Danse de Sophocle)
- 1918年 《好望角》(Le Cap de Bonne-Esperance)
- 1919年 《毕加索颂》(L’Ode a Picasso)
- 1922年 《语词》(Vocabulaire)
- 1923年 《清唱》(Plain-chant)
- 1925年 《笔下的呐喊》(Cri ecrit)《残废的祷告》(Priere mutilee)
- 1926年 《赫尔比斯神》(L’Ange Heurtebise)
- 1927年 《歌剧》(Opera)
- 1932年 《选段》(Morceaux choisis)
- 1934年 《神话》(Mythologie)
- 1939年 《迷》(Enigme)
- 1941年 《寓意》(Allegories)
- 1944年 《德文诗》(Poemes ecrits en allemand)
- 1945年 《蕾欧娜》(Leone)
- 1946年 《耶稣受难》(La Crucifixion)
- 1952年 《卡图卢尼亚台布》(La Nappe du Catalan)
- 1953年 《倚音》(Appoggiatures)《永远的花边》(Dentelle d’Eternite)
- 1954年 《明暗》(Clair-Obscur)
- 1958年 《七则对话，附仿韵律学》(Paraprosodies,precede de Sept dialogues)
- 1959年 《死人的贡多拉》(Gondole des morts)
- 1961年 《西班牙凤凰涅磐，附＂失败的党＂》(Ceremonial es pagnol du phenix,suivi de La Partie de’echecs)
- 1962年 《安魂曲》(Le Pequiem)
Books by Jean_Cocteau
- Cocteau, Jean, [[Le_coq_et_l’arlequin]]: Notes autour de la musique – avec un portrait de l’Auteur et deux monogrammes par P. Picasso, Paris, Éditions de la Sirène, 1918
- Cocteau, Jean, The Human Voice, translated by Carl Wildman, Vision Press Ltd., Great Britain, 1947
- Cocteau, Jean, The Eagle Has Two Heads, adapted by Ronald Duncan, Vision Press Ltd., Great Britain, 1947
- Cocteau, Jean, The Holy Terrors ([[Les_enfants_terribles]]), translated by Rosamond Lehmann, New Directions Publishing Corp., New York, 1957
- Cocteau, Jean, Opium: The Diary of a Cure, translated by Margaret Crosland and Sinclair Road, Grove Press Inc., New York, 1958
- Cocteau, Jean, The Infernal Machine And Other Plays, translated by W.A. Auden, E.E. Cummings, Dudley Fitts, Albert Bermel, Mary C. Hoeck, and John K. Savacool, New Directions Books, New York, 1963
- Cocteau, Jean, The Art of Cinema, edited by André Bernard and Claude Gauteur, translated by Robin Buss, Marion Boyars, London, 1988
- Cocteau, Jean, Diary of an Unknown, translated by Jesse Browner, Paragon House Publishers, New York, 1988
- Cocteau, Jean, The White Book (Le livre blanc), translated by Margaret Crosland, City Lights Books, San Francisco, 1989
- Cocteau, Jean, Les_parents_terribles, new translation by Jeremy Sams, Nick Hern Books, London, 1994
- Jean_Cocteau website
- Cocteau/cinema Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
- Find-A-Grave profile for Jean_Cocteau
- About Cocteau :
- en : http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Cocteaufan/
- en : http://plusultrablog.com/blog/?page_id=710
- fr : http://www.jeancocteau.net
- fr : http://jeancocteau.free.fr
- fr : http://leonicat.club.fr/cocteau/cocteau.htm
- fr : http://alor.univ-montp3.fr/XXESUPV/cocteau/
- fr : http://franceweb.fr/poesie/cocto2.htm
- fr :http://membres.lycos.fr/ericd/Mylene/Beyond2/JeanCocteau/CoctBio.html
- fr en : http://www.cocteau-art.com/
- en : http://www.ltmpub.freeserve.co.uk/lessixcat.html introduces work by [[Les_Six]] on audio CD Cocteau, Satie and Les_Six
- en : http://www.ltmpub.freeserve.co.uk/surrrev.html reads La Toison d’Or and Les voleurs d’enfants in 1929 with [[Dan_Parrish_Jazz_Orchestra]] on the audio CD Surrealism Reviewed
- en : http://www.ubu.com/sound/cocteau.html reading poetry backed by the [[Dan_Parrish_Jazz_Orchestra]]
- See also references in [[Les_Six]] article.
- [[Breton, André]] (1953). La clé des champs, p.77. Paris: Éditions du Sagittaire.
- [[Steegmuller, Francis]], Cocteau: A Biography, Atlantic-Little, Brown, Boston, 1970.